KENNETH DEZHNEV - DEZHNEV & CO., INC. - Graphic Communications Consulting




posted: 9/15/16; updated 10/15/16 (minor editorial corrections and a few minor factual additions)

This is a series of books on trade skills produced by The United Typothetae* of America, a association of typesetting and printing businesses, “for use in trade classes, in courses of printing instruction, and by individuals.” It was intended for apprentices and for craftspeople who wished to extend their knowledge of other specialties within the trade. Information about the series and the individual books, with downloads of free PDFs for almost forty of them, follows below.

Some of them, particularly the ones on type and typesetting, are excellent resources, very handy to use, and I recommend them highly to all who wish to expand their knowledge, and in particular as starting points for beginners, for whom the books were written. However, they will be valuable for any practitioners, whatever their experience. I have added notes for each book on their potential usefulness to craftspeople at various levels of knowledge.

Much of what was considered apprentice-level knowledge in 1918, when the skills were current and widely taught, is today Ph.D.-level knowledge of a nearly lost craft/technology. The TTS books preserve, and present in a format that facilitates learning, the sort of basic concepts and technical notions that were taken for granted at the time and so weren’t passed on in most published works, since most such works were aimed at experienced people who took the knowledge for granted.
    Most of the TTS books are brief, sometimes very brief. (The page counts given below for each book, from the 1918 notice, are inflated by about eight pages of information about the TTS series.) Most of the books include glossaries, and review questions for self study.

A 1918 notice, which is the basis for the information below, listed a total of 64 titles under the following categories, which reflect the order of the listings on this page:

    Part I—    Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials
    Part Ia—  Paper and Printing Plates
    Part II—   Hand and Machine Composition
    Part III—  Imposition and Stonework
    Part IV—  Presswork
    Part V—   Pamphlet and Book Binding
    Part VI—  Correct Literary Composition
    Part VII— Design, Color, and Lettering
    Part VIII—History of Printing
    (Part IX— Cost Finding and Accounting; apparently never published)
    (Part X—  Miscellaneous; apparently never published)


In the list below, I have provided links to direct downloads, from this site, of free PDFs for thirty-seven of the books—nearly all the titles of interest to those involved in letterpress today. Most or all of the PDFs were digitized by Google; the direct downloads here will save you the considerable trouble of locating individual titles on the Web, and and will save you 37 interactions with Google. These are all the PDFs I could find for this series. I have inspected all the PDFs, and they are all complete and of good quality, with the exception of only two flaws that obscure a few words in the text, and one blurred title page.
     I have linked to the Project Gutenberg page for their epub edition of one TTS book for which I could find no PDF. The epub edition includes images, and, based on a quick examination, seems to be of very good quality. Project Gutenberg also has electronic editions (but not PDFs) of some of the other titles for which PDFs are linked here. I have not inspected these epubs. Only one or two of them are linked here. They can be searched on the Project Gutenberg site.
    For sixteen of the titles that were published, I can locate no PDFs. (If anyone informs me of links to others, or can send good-quality PDFs, I will add them to the list.) I have checked for these in WorldCat, and given the locations of the libraries nearest to Minneapolis in which they can be found.
    Judging from my attempts to find used hard copies of some of the books for purchase, they are scarce items, not easily found. The usual print-on-demand reprints are available for some of them; caveat emptor.
    Twenty of the TTS titles were apparently never published. The 1918 notice lists them as being still in preparation, and they cannot be found on WorldCat. These titles are greyed out in the following list. They include all the titles in the “Cost Finding and Accounting” and “Miscellaneous” sections, all but one of the titles in the “Design, Color, and Lettering” section, and a few titles in other sections. Some of the titles listed in the 1918 notice as being under prepration did appear at various later dates, the latest year being 1927.

* “Typotheta” (plural: typothetae) is a Latin word (based on Greek roots) meaning, literally, “type-setter”. In the U.S., in the 1800s, many printing and typesetting businesses in the U.S. formed local or regional business associations. Many of these were called “[name of region] Typothetae”. (Others were called “Franklin Clubs”.) In 1887, the local Typothetae formed a national organization, The United Typothetae of America. (Later on, they were joined by the Franklin Clubs.) One of the leading Typothetae was Theodore Lowe De Vinne, who was famous as a scholar and promoter of typography and founder of a firm well known for fine book typesetting. The United Typothetae of America was re-organized in 1940 as The Printing Industries of America, which remains the leading trade association in the graphic arts industry.



(The following description of the series, and the basic bibliographic information for each book, is from the series information in the back of one of the books, probably from 1918.) For a PDF of a fuller description, and a list of the series, from the November 1918 issue of The Printing Art, click here.


The following list of publications, comprising the Typographic Technical Series for Apprentices, has been prepared under the supervision of the Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade classes, in courses of printing instruction, and by individuals.
    Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of the United States—employers, journeymen, and apprentices—with a comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable, up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.
    The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5x8 inches. Their general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each title in the following list.
    Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional clearness to the text. In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter. A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department treated is also added to many of the books.
    These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

[Greyed-out titles were apparently never published.]


1. Type: a Primer of Information. A.A. Stewart, 1918. Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes, font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture. 44 pp.; illustrated; glossary.

2. Compositors’ Tools and Materials. A.A. Stewart, 1918. A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads, brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.; illustrated; glossary.

3. Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture. A.A. Stewart, 1918. A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets, case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    A PDF is linked above. There’s also a Project Gutenberg eBook.

4. Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances. A.A. Stewart, 1918. Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59 pp.; illustrated; glossary.

5. Proof Presses. A.A. Stewart, 1918. A primer of information about the customary methods and machines for taking printers’ proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —In addition to the basic information, the following content may be of particular interest: 1) pulling proofs by hand with a planer; 2) use of iron hand presses for proofs, including halftones and engravings; and 3) some very early Vandercook proof presses (the ones we know today were later developments).

6. Platen Printing Presses. Daniel Baker, 1918. A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; glossary.

7. Cylinder Printing Presses. Herbert L. Baker, 1918. Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —Valuable information on the basic mechanical workings of these presses. Sort of reminds me of Paul Moxon’s present-day books on the Vandercook.

8. Mechanical Feeders and Folders. William E. Spurrier. The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines; with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; glossary.

9. Power for Machinery in Printing Houses. Carl F. Scott, 1918. A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and allied machinery, with particular reference to electric drive. 53 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —There may be information here that is of value to those restoring any type of old powered machinery: the sort of basic concepts that are taken for granted at the time and so aren’t passed on in most written works.

10. Paper Cutting Machines. Niel Gray, Jr., 1918. A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting paper. 70 pp.; illustrated; glossary.

11. Printers’ Rollers. A.A. Stewart, 1918. A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —What printers need to know about this fundamental compenent, which shouldn't be taken for granted. Includes recipes for cooking and molding your own, which had been a basic shop skill ever since rollers were used in printing; it was still current, though declining, in Stewart’s time.

12. Printing Inks. Philip Ruxton, 1918. Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the everyday use of printing inks. Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; glossary.
    —Looks like a particularly useful compendium of basic information that might be hard to find otherwise.


13. How Paper is Made. William Bond Wheelwright, 1918. A primer of information about the materials and processes of manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —The emphasis is on industrial processes, but there is coverage of hand papermaking as well. Wheelwright was the third-generation proprietor of a papermaking company.
    A similar but somewhat more extensive book, not in the TTS series, by the same author:
    Paper Mill to Pressroom. William Bond Wheelwright, 1920.
    —Meant as a primer like the TTS series books; the intent is to show printers what they need to know about paper, and papermakers what they need to know about printing. Somewhat longer (100 pages) than the TTS book, and includes a chapter for printers on the behavior of paper in the pressroom.

14. Relief Engravings. Joseph P. Donovan. Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of engraving: wood cut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings. Illustrated; glossary.

15. Electrotyping and Stereotyping. Harris B. Hatch and A.A. Stewart, 1918. A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; glossaries.
    —Of definite interest to more advanced students of metal type, because these processes had a lot of influence on metal type technology. From the early-to-mid-1800s on, much of the metal type that was set was not printed directly, but used to make stereotype plates or, to a lesser extent, electrotypes. Among other things, some of the oddball spacing and slugs found in composing rooms today were meant for use with these processes. You will also find out what “flong” is.


16. Typesetting. A.A. Stewart, 1919. A Handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying, spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting. Illustrated; glossary.
    —I can’t find a PDF of this book, but it looks like an excellent basic text, and Project Gutenberg has electronic editions of it in various other formats, including an epub e-book with images, which seems to be quite well done, based on a quick scan of all the pages. The nearest print copies listed in WorldCat are at Carleton College in Northfield and the Newberry Library in Chicago.

17. Printers’ Proofs. A.A. Stewart. The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with observations on proofreading. Illustrated; glossary.
    —No PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copies listed in WorldCat are in: University of Minnesota Library, St. Paul Public Library.

18. First Steps in Job Composition. Camille De Vèze, 1918. Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; glossary.
    —De Vèze was foreman in the composing room of the De Vinne Press.

19. General Job Composition. How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and miscellaneous work. Illustrated; glossary.

20. Book Composition. J. W. Bothwell, 1918. Chapters from DeVinne’s “Modern Methods of Book Composition,” revised and arranged for this series of text-books. Part I: Composition of pages. Part II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; glossary. Bothwell was the long-time manager of the De Vinne Press, and became president of the company the year after De Vinne’s death.

21. Tabular Composition. Robert Seaver, 1918. A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples of more difficult composition. 86 pp.; examples.
    —A few years earlier, in 1913, Seaver had published a much briefer (15 pages) book on the subject of tabular composition, also titled Tabular Composition, and you can download a PDF of the earlier book from this site too. There’s probably little or no practical content in the earlier book that isn’t in the Typographic Technical Series book. But the briefer book contains things of historical interest that aren’t in the TTS book, and the first page is well worth reading for its description, in terms the Typothetae would probably not have considered suitable for apprentices to read, of the privileged status of the few hand compositors who were skilled in tabular work. Seaver also describes the drastic change in that status that came with the spread of the Monotype machine. The Monotype system was famous for book typesetting, but it was also especially good at tabular work, which it produced much faster (and probably better) than a hand compositor could. But hand-set tabular work remained a valuable skill. In fact, even with digital technology at the beginning of the 21st century, a hundred years after the Monotype began to dominate tabular composition, there were very few people who could do good tabular work, and it was definitely a sought-after skill, especially for financial typesetting. More recently, there has been another technological transformation, with the appearance around 2007 of powerful tabular capabilities in InDesign. But I suspect that this hasn’t really changed things, because the crucial skills in tabular work aren’t technology-related.

22. Applied Arithmetic. E. E. Sheldon, 1918. Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade, calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with examples and exercises. 159 pp.
    —Don’t be deterred by the grade-school basics at the beginning of the book. In 1918, there were a lot of people who had left school before being exposed to this. (Today, of course, everyone is exposed to it, but actually learning it is optional.) Most of the content is more advanced, and everyone will find things of interest here. In particular, the sections on arithmetic in typesetting and printing cover valuable concepts and basic information in addition to arithmetic. There is also a section on arithmetic in bookbinding, and an introduction to the use of the micrometer and the Vernier caliper.
    In the shops I worked in, pretty much everybody had a calculator or a proportion wheel handy, and used them often. (The wheel is just as accurate as a calculator for even the most precise typographic work.) But those tools were only for the less simple calculations: most of the time, you did the arithmetic in your head, and hardly even thought consciously about it. You were doing it all the time, because the more use you made of arithmetic, the easier, faster, and better was your work. Accurate arithmetic, where everyone gets the same result, was also—and remains—essential for planning out a job, and for communication, coordination, and effective cooperation in production.

23. Typecasting and Composing Machines. A. W. Finlay, Editor; Section IV—Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines, Frank H. Smith. A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; glossary.


24. Locking Forms for the Job Press. Frank S. Henry, 1920. Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and about general work on the stone. Illustrated; glossary.

25. Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press. Frank S. Henry, 1926. Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; glossary.
    —No PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copy listed in WorldCat is at Carleton College in Northfield.


26. Making Ready on Platen Presses. T.G. McGrew. The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan. regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; glossary.

27. Cylinder Presswork. T.G. McGrew. Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers, ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; glossary.

28. Pressroom Hints and Helps. Charles L. Dunton, 1918. Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with directions and useful information relating to a variety of printing-press problems. 87 pp.
    —A lot of basic information here about platen presswork.

29. Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts. A.W. Elson, 1920. A primer of information about the distinctive features of the relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing. 84 pp.; illustrated; glossary.
    —The material on the various engraving processes (copper, steel, and wood), and also on etching, mezzotint, drypoint, and lithography, may be of particular use as background information for present-day craftspeople who aren’t directly involved with these techniques but want to know about them because they are so important in the history of printing and the visual arts. Also a basic overview of the other printing processes, such as offset and gravure.


30. Pamphlet Binding. Bancroft L. Goodwin, 1925. A primer of information about the various operations employed in binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated; glossary.
    —No PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copies listed in WorldCat are in: University of Minnesota Library, St. Paul Public Library, Minnesota Historical Society Library. The four-volume work by Pleger on industrial bookbinding, mentioned and linked in the following entry (#31), treats pamphlet binding in volume 2.

31. Book Binding. John J. Pleger, 1924. Practical information about the usual operations in binding books: folding, gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and blank-book binding. Illustrated; glossary.
    Pleger had previously published a much more extensive work, Bookbinding and its Auxiliary Branches, in four volumes, which looks like a significant resource for bookbinders. I’ve provided more information about this book, and links to downloadable PDFs of these volumes in the Bookbinding section of the Reading page.
    —As for Pleger’s TTS book, no freely downloadable PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copies listed in WorldCat are in: University of Minnesota Library, Hennepin County Public Library. A PDF is viewable in the Hathi Trust online collection, but only members can download it; membership doesn’t look like something that’s casually available.


As far as editorial and typographic style is concerned, the style guides and practical typesetting manuals referenced on the Reading page will contain all of this information in reference format. (None will have it all, but some, especially DeVinne, will come close. DeVinne may be regarded as the advanced equivalent of the TTS manuals in this section.) However, using some of the TTS books for review or self-study may be an excellent idea for anyone who wants to expand their knowledge, while experts will find much of historical interest that would be hard to find elsewhere—the sort of thing that is taken for granted when it is current, and so never finds it way into print, and becomes lost or all-but-unfindable in later periods. I’ve noted some of the aspects of each book that would be of particular interest to people at different stages of learning. I’ve also taken account of areas where the content of these books is outdated.
    Editorial and typographic style hasn’t been seriously and competently taught in connection with typography in over forty years. This knowledge is also valuable for expanding general communication skills—and just for understanding the level of detail that is important in communicating with visual language. Think of it as the editorial equivalent of learning to anatomize a letter and understanding the importance of all the details of letter design to all of the functions of typography.

Books 39, 40, and 42 (Proofreading, Preparation of Printers’ Copy, and The Printer’s Dictionary), go well beyond matters of editorial and typographic style. The first two cover important production procedures. The dictionary is of general interest to anyone involved with printing and type.

32. Word Study and English Grammar. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A primer of information about words, their relations, and their uses. 68 pp.; glossary.
    —Mostly remedial and very basic. However, the guidelines for good writing on pp. 20–24 are certainly worth review—they are better than much else of the nature that I have seen.

33. Punctuation. F.W. Hamilton, 1920. A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; glossary.
    —A worthwhile brief review of basic principles, especially the section on commas, which gets right to the point: it’s all about the sense of the words. Outdated on a few minor points, but far more reliable than many recent guides. Still, your final authority should be something more recent.

34. Capitals. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; glossary.
    —Most is pretty basic but still worth a quick look by way of review. Worth reading through are the introduction (pp. 1–3), and the sections on small caps (pp. 17–21) and “Typographic Use of Capitals” (pp. 22–28).

35. Division of Words. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.
    —Page 22, on the tradeoffs between spacing and division on narrow meaures, is worth reading. The rest, including some guidelines on spelling, is pretty basic, and may be found in in already available guides.

36. Compound Words. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A study of the principles of compounding, the components of compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.
    —With regard to compounding, conventional usage, including informed professional usage, has changed enough so that you’re better off using as a guide a more or less recent version of Chicago (though not necessarily the most recent). However, the three-page introduction is worth reading on the subject of the changes in practice in this area, and how the communications professional should respond to those changes. An experienced editor used to thinking minutely about questions of compounding may find the book of real use at the level of general philosophy.

37. Abbreviations and Signs. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.
    —A similar section of a modern reference book would take the place of this, either for study or reference. Of historical interest for some details. The introduction backs up my comments about ligatures, posted elsewhere on this site.

38. The Uses of Italic. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A primer of information about the history and uses of italic letters. 31 pp.
    —Can be skipped. Most of the misuses of italic warned against here have long been out of fashion. The rest of the content in this brief book can be found in common style guides.

(production and technical information of major importance)

39. Proofreading. Arnold Levitas, 1918. The technical phases of the proofreader’s work; reading; marking, revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated. examples. 59 pp.; glossary. [There is also a section on copyfitting.]
    —Much of the content is detail of specific procedures peculiar to various specialties within printing and typesetting. It is thus much less useful for basic learning than Anderson’s McGraw-Hill’s Proofreading Handbook, in which basic proofreading skills are taught at length. However, an editorial professional with an eye to the fundamental historical and theoretical issues of the craft will find it interesting. Furthermore, since proofreading is a critical skill that has been grossly neglected, so that there is so little of value anywhere on the subject, even the beginner would profit from a reading of these 40 small pages. The procedural specifics may not be relevant to most work today, especially on the craft side of typography, but the book as a whole gives a good picture of the nature and importance of proofreading, and of the “whys” behind its procedures and its demands.

40. Preparation of Printers’ Copy. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.
    —Nineteen small pages of text (excluding front and back matter), which you should definitely read as a basic overview of the importance and general requirements of the topic. Copy preparation is an indispensable component of quality work, and also saves a great deal of the time and trouble commonly spent fixing problems at the typesetting and printing stages, trouble that copy preparation would have prevented with far less effort and cost. This is as true of craft work involving small amounts of type as it is of commercial book work. Copy preparation is also a nearly lost art, except in a few professional publishing organizations.

41. Printers’ Manual of Style. F.W. Hamilton, 1927. A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.
    —I haven’t seen the book, but for reference purposes, the style guides and practical typesetting manuals referenced on the Reading page will probably take its place quite nicely.
    No downloadable PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copies listed in WorldCat are in: University of Minnesota Library, St. Paul Public Library, and at Carleton College in Northfield. A PDF is searchable in the Hathi Trust online collection, but cannot be viewed or downloaded due to copyright restrictions.

42. The Printer’s Dictionary. A.A. Stewart, 1912. A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical terms explained. Illustrated.
    —An extensive (367 pages) and wide-ranging dictionary of terms. Very good for browsing; contains lots of odd and interesting information, and obscure but still relevant technical details. There is a separate section at the end for bookbinding terms. Among many other things, it is a resource for for the trade-names of a good number of long-obsolete varieties of printing machinery.


43. Applied Design for Printers. Harry L. Gage, 1920. A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; glossary; bibliography.
    —Looks like an interesting overview of the basics of typographic design.

44. Elements of Typographic Design. Harry L. Gage. Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building material of typography: paper, types, ink, decorations and illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book, treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units Illustrations; glossary; bibliography.

45. Rudiments of Color in Printing. Harry L. Gage. Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value, intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full color, and on various papers. Glossary; bibliography.

46. Lettering in Typography. Harry L. Gage. Printer’s use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect. Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on type design. Classification of general forms in lettering. Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully illustrated; glossary; bibliography.

47. Typographic Design in Advertising. Harry L. Gage. The printer’s function in advertising. Precepts upon which advertising is based. Printer’s analysis of his copy. Emphasis, legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising typography. Illustrations; glossary; bibliography.
    —I sure would have liked to see this one.

48. Making Dummies and Layouts. Harry L. Gage. A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout. Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy envelopes. Illustrations; glossary; bibliography.


49. Books Before Typography. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.; illustrated.
    —Looks like a useful overview. Since 1918, more information and perspectives have been added to our knowledge of the history of the book. But Hamilton here makes some valuable points I haven’t seen made elsewhere.

50. The Invention of Typography. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about. 64 pp.
    —I’ve only glanced at the book. For reasons mentioned in the entries on Gutenberg in the History section on the Reading page, I (and many others) do not endorse Hamilton’s conclusion that Coster should be given priority over Gutenberg. (My impression is that Coster’s credibility has largely vanished over the past few generations. It is not even clear that his work, such as it was, preceded Gutenberg’s in time. See the books on Gutenberg noted in the History section of the Reading page on this site.) However, there may be other content of value in this book, especially regarding the technological antecedents of Gutenberg’s inventions.
    No PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copy listed in WorldCat is at St. Paul Public Library.

51. Brief History of Printing—Part I. F.W. Hamilton. A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the development of the book, the development of printers’ materials, and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.
    —No PDF found as of 9/16. The nearest print copy listed in WorldCat is in the St. Paul Public Library. There are probably better sources for this information anyway, because scholarship since the 1920s has expanded and clarified the picture somewhat. See, for instance, the books on Gutenberg and a few other historical topics in the History section on the Reading page on this site. I don’t know of a single good primer on the subject that I would recommend, but one may well exist.

52. Brief History of Printing—Part II. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the priming industry from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship, internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.
    —Looks like a very useful history; the focus on economic, political, and legal environment, and on the internal organization of the trade, is not something you will get in most histories of printing.

53. Printing in England. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present time. 89 pp.
    —Looks like a good brief history, which probably contains material not found in Updike’s standard work.

54. Printing in America. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.
    —Looks like a useful history and a valuable supplement to other work on the subject, especially for its information on the internal organization of the trade.

55. Type and Presses in America. F.W. Hamilton, 1918. A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and press building in the United States. 52 pp.
    —Looks like a good overview, though much like other accounts I’ve seen elsewhere.


56. Elements of Cost in Printing. Henry P. Porter. A primer of information about all the elements that contribute to the cost of printing and their relation to each other. Glossary.

57. Use of a Cost System. Henry P. Porter. The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should show. How to utilize the information they give. Glossary.

58. The Printer as a Merchant. Henry P. Porter. The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing. The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of the finished product. Glossary.

59. Fundamental Principles of Estimating. Henry P. Porter. The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for estimating. Glossary.

60. Estimating and Selling. Henry P. Porter. An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their relation to Belling. Glossary.

61. Accounting for Printers. Henry P. Porter. A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary books and accessory records. Glossary.


62. Health, Sanitation, and Safety. Henry P. Porter. Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new; practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and rules for safety.

63. Topical Index. F.W. Hamilton. A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

64. Courses of Study. F.W. Hamilton. A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for classroom and shop work.

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